Today, more than ever, the state of a country's science and technology is a critical factor for economic competitiveness and long-term growth. This book traces the development of science and technology policies and initiatives in Singapore since 1965. Developed as a trading entrepôt by the British, science and technology were never strongly emphasized, right up to the 1970s. However, the need to stay ahead of economic competitiveness motivated the Singapore Government to initiate its national science and technology policy from the 1980s － moving Singapore from a low-skilled, low-technology economy to a high-skilled, high-technology one. Today, the drive for Singapore to become a hotbed for technological start-ups and R&D activities, supported by strong government funding and cutting-edge facilities, seems promising. Are the aspirations of nurturing a Silicon Valley－type culture in Singapore achievable? Are pragmatic, risk-averse Singaporeans ready for the mindset change? Can a nation of traders and service-brokers become a nation of technological innovators and entrepreneurs? This book attempts to provide the answers.