The Role of Shaykh 'Abd Al-Ra'uf al-Fansuri on the Reconciliation of Sufism and Shari'ah of 17th Century Malay World



PhD defended at: 

International Islamic University Malaysia


The tension between Sufism and sharīcah, i.e., the conflict of wujūdiyyah in Acheh in the 17th century had led Ṣūfī scholars, particularly cAbd al-Ra’ūf al-Fanṣūrī to seek the convergence between Sufism and sharīcah. Therefore, this study is carried out to ex-amine the efforts of cAbd al-Ra’ūf to reconcile Sufism with sharīcah. It examines cAbd al-Ra’ūf’s approaches of reconciliation of Sufism and sharīcah in the general context as well as in the context of the controversial issue, i.e., the doctrine of waḥdat al-wujūd. It is a qualitative research which employed document analysis. The result of the study shows that cAbd al-Ra’ūf had played a significant role in reconciliating Sufism with sharīcah in 17th century Malay world. The approaches employed by cAbd al-Ra’ūf were spreading sharīcah sciences and Sufism among Muslims; supporting Sufism by the Qur’ān and Sunnah; founding Sufism by orthodox (Sunnī) theology; emphasizing the significance of stations (al-maqāmāt); emphasizing the significance of observance of practising sharīcah and integrating good conducts to Sufism. Meanwhile cAbd al-Ra’ūf’s approach of reconciliation in the controversial issue were interpreting waḥdat al-wujūd in the orthodox sense and criticizing the extreme approach in Islamic creed, i.e., judge of infidel to Muslims.