Is the richness and diversity of rituals and celebrations in South Asia unique? Can we speak of a homo ritualis when it comes to India or the Hindu? Are Indians or Hindus more involved in rituals than other people? And if so, what makes them special? This book tries to answer such questions. It is primarily a study of rituals at work in a cultural-specific and religious context considering indigenous terms and theories of ritual, but it also aims at contributing to ritual theory in general. Based on extensive text studies and field-work in Nepal and India, it is argued that ritual is a distinctive way of acting, which, similar to theater play, can be distinguished from other forms of action. The book describes and analyzes various forms of Hindu rituals and festivals, e.g., life-cycle rituals, the Vedic sacrifice, vows processions or the worship of deities (pūjā). It also examines various conceptional components of (Hindu) rituals such as framing, formality modality and theories of meaning. It is asked how a consequent use of indigenous use of terms and theories modifies ritual theory and how it contributes to culture-specific forms of rituals. The book thus is the first attempt on a Hindu theory of rituals.